International Journal of Contemporary Research In Multidisciplinary, 2024;3(1):31-37

Diabetic Emergency: Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia

Author Name: Hadi Saifullah

Paper Type: research paper
Article Information
Paper Received on: 2023-12-03
Paper Accepted on: 2024-01-05
Paper Published on: 2024-01-09

Background: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states (HHS), and hypoglycemia are the most serious and fatal complications of diabetes if their diagnosis and treatment are not done on time. They will cause comas and eventually death. Dehydration is present in both DKA and HHS, but ketosis and metabolic acidosis are present only in DKA. Our aim is to find out about DKA, HHS, EDKA and hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus patients in the Nangarhar University Teaching Hospital Medical Ward.

Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted with 275 in patients with diabetes mellitus DM1 and DM2 during the Nangarhar university teaching hospital medical ward. We studded acute complications of DM such as DKA, HHS, EDKA and Hypoglycemia in DM1 and DM2 patients and in both sex males and females. Biochemical tests such as blood sugar, urine ketone bodies, urine and blood tests were performed free of charge in the hospital laboratory. During this period, we found all the files of the patients who were hospitalized under diabetes diagnosis and laboratory tests, and we compiled and analyzed all the figures in the Excel page. We separated all the patients with diabetes according to gender and age. In this research, those who were over 18 years old are included. The fully automated clinical chemistry analyzer from micro lab, model 300, was used to measure biochemical parameters. IBM SPSS version 26 statistical software was used to analyses the data.

Result: In 2023–2024, 275 diabetic patients were admitted to the university teaching hospital, of whom 67% (184) were female and 33% (91) were male. Of these patients, 78% (213) were not DKA, and 22% (62) were DKA. HHS was negative in 100% of diabetes patients. EDKA was negative in 100% of patients. Hypoglycemia was positive in 16% (44) of diabetes patients. KA was positive in 24.18% of men and negative in 75.82% of male patients. DKA was positive in 21.62% of female patients and negative in 78.38% of female patients. Hypoglycemia was positive for diabetes in 27.27% (12) of male patients, and 72.73% (32) of female patients were positive for diabetes. Hypoglycemia was positive in 11.27% (33) of DM2 patients, of which 7.27% (22) were females and 4% (11%) were males. Hypoglycemia was positive in 4.72% (11) of DM1 patients, of which 2.90% (8) were females and 1.81% (3) were males. The number of DM1 patients was 7.63% (21). Among DM1 patients, 2.18% (6) had DKA, of which 1.09% (3) were females and 1.09% (3) were males. The number of DM2 patients was 92.30% (254). Among DM2 patients, 20.36% (56) had DKA, of which 14.91% (41) were females and 5.45% (15) were males

Conclusion: In this research, it can be seen that in the emergency complications of diabetes, the occurrences of DKA and hypoglycemia were high, and the occurrences of HHS and EDKA were not seen, and the occurrences of the diabetes mellitus was high in women, similarly, the occurrences of type 2 DM was high compared to DM1.


Diabetes mellitus; Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state; Diabetic Ketoacidosis, euglycemic DKA. hypoglycemia

How to Cite this Article:

Hadi Saifullah. Diabetic Emergency: Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. International Journal of Contemporary Research in Multidisciplinary. 2024: 3(1):31-37

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